soil profile terminology

Normal Force – a force directed perpendicular to a surface element upon which it acts. Homogeneous Soil Mass – a soil mass having the same properties at different points. Soil is used by people in many ways. Sometimes used during drilling of borings as a means of preventing the adjacent soil from caving into the boring. Coefficient of Uniformity, C₁₂ – the ratio of discharge of water under laminar flow conditions through a unit cross-sectional area of porous medium such as soil under a unit hydraulic gradient and standard temperature and pressure conditions. Soil respiration is a direct and sensitive assessment of soil antecedent biological activity. The process of soil development is often refered to as soil weathering. Stone – crushed or naturally angular particle of rock that will pass a 3-in. Soil aggregates are usually greater than ten millimeters in diameter and formed by natural forces (such as alternate wetting-drying) and organic substances derived from root exudates, roots, soil animals and microbial by-products which cement primary particles into smaller aggregates or smaller aggregates into larger particles, such as macroaggregates. Leaching – the removal in solution of soluble materials by percolating or moving water. Humin (HN): A fraction of soil organic matter that cannot be extracted from soil with dilute alkali or acid. Common soil terms. Protozoa: Any of a large group of one-celled organisms that move by flagella (flagellates), cilia (ciliates), or have flow (amoeba). A soil profile may have soil horizons that are easy or difficult to distinguish. These tests are a measure of the plasticity of a soil. The secondary units are classified on the basis of size (microaggregates are the smallest and macroaggregates are the largest) and shape. Isotropic – an adjective used to describe materials with physical properties that are the same regardless of the direction of measurement. Infiltration is affected by several factors including antecedent soil moisture content, soil compaction, soil texture, earthworms, and plant roots. We work with families and children, farmers and businessowners, community leaders and elected officials to build better lives, better businesses and better communities to make Ohio great. Rock – any naturally formed and cemented aggregate of mineral matter occurring in large masses or fragments. Core – a cylindrical sample of soil or rock recovered in the field using a core bit.  It consists of slowly pressing a steel cone into the soil and measuring the penetration resistance. Angle of Internal Friction – angle between the axis of normal stress and the tangent to the Mohr at a point corresponding to a given failure stress in soil. As soils develop over time, layers (or horizons) form a soil profile. These soil microorganisms generally resemble fungi and have branched mycelium. (Not all drilled shafts have bells.) Failure – Exceeding the maximum strength of material. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Soil Mechanics – the application of the laws and principles of mechanics and hydraulics to engineering problems dealing with soil as an engineering material. An ideal soil has a bulk density of about 1.25 g cm-3. Humification Degree (HD): The ratio of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) to total humified organic matter, HD = (Humic acid + Fulvic acid)/ (Total extracted C)*100. Bearing Capacity Failure – a foundation failure that occurs when the shear stresses in the adjacent soil exceed the shear strength. Anaerobic: Absence of oxygen or growing in the absence of oxygen. Also called boring or drill hole. As a plant matures, the cellulose content of the plant generally increases. Proctor Curve – the curve showing the relationship between dry unit weight and water content of a soil for a given compactive effort. 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. These four ingredients react with one another in amazing ways, making soil one of our planet’s most dynamic and important natural resources. 1).The spatial variation of soil structure on farmers’ fields (Finke, 1992, 1993) and in catenary sequences in the landscape … Soil Facts — Definitions of soil and soil survey, information on careers, some basics on soil formation and classification, and a soil science glossary.. Handbook for Collegiate Soils Contest (PDF; 116 KB) — A reference training document developed for the Southeastern Region Collegiate Soil Judging … Cellulose: The greatest amount of carbon in a plant in the form of carbohydrates is cellulose, which gives plants structural rigidity, and allows plants to grow erect. N2O), radon, and emitted heavy metal dusts. Kip – Kilopound; a unit of force equal to 1000 lb. Soils with good structural stability typically have more macroaggregates and macropores while soils with poor structural stability have more microaggregates and micropores. Specific Maintenance of Respiration (qCO2): It is expressed as basal respiration per unit of total microbial biomass. Meniscus – the curved, film-like layer at the surface of a liquid at rest within a container. Aerobic: Aerobic means in the presence of oxygen or growing in the presence of oxygen. Sieve Analysis – use of a series of sieves to determine the particle size distribution of a soil. Glossary of Soil–related terms This glossary seeks to explain in non-technical language some of the common terminology used by soil scientists. Coefficient of Consolidation – a soil parameter used in the theory of consolidation that contains physical constants of a soil affecting its volume change. Denitrification: Reduction of nitrogen (e.g. The composition of water as affected by natural processes and human activities depending on the water's chemical, biological, physical, and radiological condition. The “Site Description” and “Profile Description” sections generally follow conventional profile description format and Aerobic: Describes organisms living or occurring only when oxygen is present. Like a biography, each profile tells a story about the life of a soil. Aggregates: Primary soil particles (sand, silt, and clay) held together in a single mass or cluster, such as a crumb, block, prism or clod using organic matter as cementing material. Ecosystem Services: The resources and processes supplied by natural ecosystems that benefit humans. Stress – the ratio of force to area upon which it acts. Degree of Consolidation – the ration, expressed as a percentage, of the amount of consolidation at a given time within a soil mass to the total amount of consolidation expected under a given stress condition. Total carbon (TC) minus active carbon (AC) equals passive carbon (PC). Over time, a number of environmental forces act to create distinct layers or horizons parallel to the soil … Also refers to the condition of the soil, including its ecosystems (minerals, nutrients, and microbial activity), pH, and structure. Micropores: Smaller soil pores (less than 60 micrometers) generally found within soil aggregates. Columbus, Ohio 43210 The soil in a coniferous forest tends to be young and nutrient-poor. Uniformly-Graded – a soil having a large part of its components of the same (or similar) particle size. ; commonly used to improve physical condition. Hemicelluloses: Consists of polymers that branched, the second most common carbohydrate (up to 30%) in plant residues. Example: more humified soil organic matter. Print Copies are Available Water stable aggregates improve soil quality. Air Quality: Defined as a measure of the amount or concentration of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere and the dispersion potential of an area to dilute those pollutants. Soils perform many functions, and healthy soil gives us clean air and water, bountiful crops and forests, productive rangeland, diverse wildlife, and beautiful landscapes. Usually expressed as the ratio of water volume to total void volume. Humification Index (HI): A ratio of non-humified carbon or glucose carbon, divided by total humified organic carbon, HI = (Non-humic C)/ (Humic acid + Fulvic acid)*100. Bank Run – material, usually gravel or sand, that is not processed but is used in the as-found condition. Free Water – water that is free to move through a soil mass under the influence of gravity. Silt – Material passing the No. Technical descriptions of the soil are not only useful for farmers, but for scientists, ecologists, soil engineers, hydrologists and land use planners. Soil quality is the result of combined activities of biological, chemical, and physical properties as a reaction of management operations. Soil is a mixture of minerals, dead and living organisms (organic materials), air, and water. Capillary Rise – the height above a free water elevation to which water will rise due to capillary action. Here is an excellent resource to measure Soil Elasticity utilizing a triaxal apparatus. It is equal to the slope of the tangent or the secant of a stress-strain curve. Water Content –  the amount of water contained within a soil, usually expressed as a percentage. Normally Consolidated Soil – soil that has never been subjected to an effective pressure greater than the existing effective overburden pressure. Glacial Till – Man-made fabrics designed for use in soil stabilization and control. Soil Quality Index: Integrated measure of soil quality by transforming and combining selected core biological, chemical, and physical properties into a single index to evaluate a soil's functional capability. The soil profile is where the Dig down deep into any soil, and you’ll see that it is made of layers, or horizons (O, A, E, B, C, R). Anaerobesis of soil is also responsible for widespread soil-borne diseases. Soil is the part of the earth’s surface comprised of disintegrated rock and humus that provides the medium for plant growth. Labile: A substance that is readily transformed or used by microorganisms. Photo courtesy of Eliot, USDA-NRCS. Texture is important to evaluate soil quality associated with fertility and crop productivity, compaction, hydrological properties, construction, and biological activity. Microbial Biomass: Includes the smallest living organisms such as bacteria, fungus, protozoa, algae, actinomycetes, nematodes, and nonliving organisms: prion and viruses. Aziz, I. Soil degradation is the short to medium term deterioration of soil caused by land use, soil management, and the soil's susceptibility to soil processes that promote loss of function (Blum, 1998; Lal, 1998). In other words, high DH means the organic matter is more resistant to decomposition. Usually occurs in estuarine and sea water (including Gulf of Mexico) from an excess of nitrogen and phosphorus which promotes the growth of algae. 200 U.S. standard sieve (0.075 mm). The study of soil structure ranges from the effects of particle interaction at a scale of nanometers (Quirk, 1994) to the functioning of soil structure profiles at a scale of meters (Miedema et al., 1994a; Fig. Liquidity Index – the ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the natural water content of a given soil sample minus its plastic limit to its plasticity index. Soil – sediments or other unconsolidated accumulations of solid particles produced by the physical and chemical disintegration of rocks, and which may contain organic matter.  As the soil dries, the pore water is drawn to the particle contact points and a soil suction force develops. In fact, if we counted all the animals on earth, four out of every five would be a nematode. 200 U.S. standard sieve. Clay Soil – fine-grained soil finer than 0.002 mm (0.005 mm in some cases) that exhibits plasticity with a range of water contents. Mohr Failure Envelope – the envelope of a sequence of Mohr circles representing  different stress conditions at failure for a given material. Compaction Curve – the curve showing the relationship between dry unit weight and water content of a soil for a given compactive effort. Carbon-Nitrogen Ratio (C/N): Ratio of the mass (weight) of organic carbon to the mass of total nitrogen in the soil, plants, or any other organic compounds. This Glossary of Soil Science Terms was an ad hoc committee of the Soil Science of America to provide a single glossary of terms for the various disciplines of soil science. The soil profile is a column of soil, essentially three-dimensional and large enough to be used to characterise the soil condition at a particular place. Optimum Moisture Content – water content at which a soil can be compacted to a maximum dry unit weight using a specific compactive effort. Subsidence – sinking of a part of the earth’s crust and downward displacement of the overburden (rock, soil, or both) lying above an underground excavation. Ground Works Solutions offers foundation and infrastructure solutions for commercial, government and residential customers. Soil compaction physically shrinks the soil volume by reducing the macropores and the space for air and water movement. Phone: 614-292-6181, © 2020 | 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. Examples include centipedes, nematodes, and mites.

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